When a new radio station in Portland, Oregon, sought to interview education experts for a series of programs exploring strategies to help students' academic performance, it turned to the College of Education at the University of Oregon. The education faculty was well-suited to this endeavor. The research of its memberssome of whom have careers spanning 30 yearswas highly regarded, the subject of National Education Association documentaries (most recently on February 24, 2000) and an article in Education Week (Sack, 1999). The interview series provided a platform to inform education professionals, alumni, potential students, parents, and the general public about research and outreach activities in education ranging from strategies for dealing with destructive behavior to improving early reading performance. Unfortunately, Oregon's size, the rural nature of its school districts (which are scattered over almost 100,000 square miles), and the station's broadcast range (75 miles from metropolitan Portland) limited potential audiences.
To address this, the College of Education looked into using streaming media to extend the delivery range beyond Portland to the rest of the state and even to a national or global audience. Streaming, a method of delivering multimedia content over a network, was developed several years ago to address the problem of delivering large media files over limited network bandwidth. Instead of linking to a standard audio or video file that requires full downloading before it can be played, streaming uses client and server software in tandem to transmit and receive data simultaneously, allowing the user to begin listening to or viewing content shortly after starting the download. The client side buffers several seconds of multimedia data before sending any data to the speakers or video decoders, compensating for any momentary delays in delivery.
There are a number of different streaming formats available. The most familiar types are RealPlayer, Quicktime, and Windows Media Player. As the College of Education began to consider its options for providing streaming content, the station involved in the project, KPAM-AM 860, explained that it streamed its broadcast through StreamAudio, a company that currently serves more than 730 radio stations and that recorded over 3.2 million user-sessions in January 2001. A growing number of Internet service providers (ISPs) offer radio broadcast streaming.
The encoding software developed by StreamAudio incorporates Microsoft's Windows Media Player technology to create an active streaming format (.asf) file. The file is then transmitted to StreamAudio's servers and linked to the radio station's Web site. The file-encoding and file-serving processes occur in real time; listeners can phone the station with questions during the program. This process seemed ideal for our purposes. StreamAudio even graciously agreed to serve archived editions of the interviews at no charge for several weeks following the broadcasts. The radio station also generously agreed to provide the College of Education with tapes of the interviews and permission to copy and redistribute the tapes for a small fee (to cover the cost of materials, handling, and copying the streaming files onto CDs).
To promote the upcoming event, we created a Web page to explain to clients how to prepare their computer system for receiving the broadcasts. Another page featured pictures of the faculty members with links to articles related to the discussion topics, which we updated each week. After each interview was concluded we also added a link to an archive file of the interview. We modified our home page each week to feature a teaser about the upcoming interviews to generate interest among students, faculty, staff, and other visitors to the College of Education's Web site. The university public relations office released local and statewide announcements about the upcoming broadcasts, and university alumni and school districts throughout the state received brochures about the program.
I have learned to be skeptical of technology vendors' claims, so, before the broadcast date, I installed Media Player on a number of different platforms to test the streaming performance. As I had feared, there were problems. The first was a file-naming problem that made playback fail on Macintosh computers. StreamAudio's technical support staff recognized the error immediately and modified the file name to resolve it.
With my colleague Terry Kneen, instructional systems coordinator for the College of Education, I tested the broadcast remotely on slow modem lines. Severe inconsistency existed when the file was streamed at speeds of less than 56k. Unfortunately, StreamAudio could not resolve this problem. The software they had developed for producing the archive files encoded the file at a transmission rate that was too fast for low bandwidth connections.
Fortunately, KPAM provided conventional audiotapes of the interviews. Terry Kneen digitized the audio, and we edited out news and commercial breaks with Sound Forge. Kneen converted the resulting files into a streaming Quicktime 4 format and used a digital media utility called Media Cleaner to adjust the streaming rate, which produced files that could be streamed at speeds as slow as 26,400 baud. He installed a Quicktime streaming Web server that ran the OS X operating system to deliver the files. Links to these compressed Quicktime files replaced the links to the StreamAudio archive files. After these successful alterations, the files played uninterrupted on both PCs and Macs (equipped with Quicktime 4), even at slow modem speeds.
With some effort, we eventually accomplished our task—although, because the original broadcast files could not be streamed properly, audiences at home could not listen to or interact with the interviewees during the broadcast itself (except for those users with a higher speed DSL connection, rare in Oregon outside of metropolitan areas). Despite the problems, the logs for the College of Education's Web server revealed more than 1,700 page requests during the five weeks of the series and two weeks thereafter; these requests came from international locations as well as local and national listeners. Due to our difficulties in streaming a live interactive broadcast with hardware and software over which we had little control, our development officer has indicated that she would consider another attempt when the Media Player technology matures a little more or the broadcast source employs Quicktime. In the meantime we have successfully streamed filmed presentations from our Oregon Conference using Quicktime technology, which continues to provide the most trouble-free solution for cross-platform delivery. The College's administration remains optimistic about the potential of this technology for sharing research and scholarly activities with a global audience.
Sack, J. L. (1999, October). An ounce of prevention. Education Week, 19(9), 32-34.shooter gamesdownloadable gameshidden objects gamespuzzle gamesbrick bustermatch 3 gamespc game downloadshidden object gamesbest pc games